Galangal is an East Asian tropical shrub with lance-like leaves, iris-like flowers, and reddish brown, woody rhizomes. It grows mainly in the Eastern Himalayas and Southwest India, and was introduced to Europe in the 9th century. Saint Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179 C.E.) referred to galangal as the spice of life and used it in many of her formulas. The name galangal is derived from the Arabic khalanjan, referring to Chinese ginger, whose family it is a member of. The distinctive flavor and sweetness of licorice comes from the glycyrrhizin that composes up to 25% of the root's makeup. The root itself is hard and fibrous, and is thus typically used for food only as a liquid flavor infusion. In fact, many licorice flavored candies include no real licorice, and are instead flavored with similarly flavored spices such as anise and fennel. Licorice contains: glycyrrhizin, complex immune-stimulant sugars. Stinging nettle or common nettle (Urtica dioica), is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant, native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and North America. The plant has many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on its leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles that inject histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animals. The plant has a long history of use as a medicine and as a food source. It has a flavour similar to spinach when cooked and is rich in vitamins A, C, iron, potassium, manganese, and calcium.